Whether you are seeking a spiritual renewal or looking for a unique adventure, your next journey could include a literal walk through history. Some of these ancient paths are deeply rooted in some of the world’s major religions while others are more about the physical challenge. From a cathedral built for a slain Viking king to the alleged final resting place of the apostle James, these paths are worthy of a long spiritual, cultural, or physical journey. And, you might just discover a little more about yourself along the way.Choose one of these four paths to feed your mind, body, and soul.St. Olav WaysNorwayGunn Merete Roll/PilegrimsledenBorn in 995, Olav Haraldsson was a successful Viking chief who, after spending a some time in the Duke of Normandy’s court where he learned and embraced Christianity before being baptized in 1014, returned to Norway and became the first king of the entire country. He ruled until fleeing into exile in 1028. He returned in 1030 with a a small army and was killed in battle at Stiklestad. A year after he was buried in Trondheim, the bishop was convinced to open the grave of the slain king. To their surprise, the king’s corpse was not the rotting mass it should have been, but appeared merely to be sleeping while a sweet aroma wafted from the coffin. The king was declared a martyr and a saint and the pilgrimages began almost immediately.Today, the paths lead their way through Norway, Sweden, and Denmark and there are seven approved routes to reach the magnificent cathedral of Nidaros. Regardless of which path you take, you will navigate through villages and towns, cross scenic mountain ranges, and seek refuge in historic homes.El Camino de Santiago SpainLucapierro/Getty ImagesPerhaps the most popular pilgrimage in all of Europe is the Camino de Santiago (the Way of St James). The Camino is actually a large network of ancient paths dating back to the 9th century that stretch all across Europe. All of these paths culminate at the tomb of St. James in Santiago de Compostela. The ancient pilgrim route dates back to year 814 when the tomb of St. James was discovered. From that moment, the destination became a peregrination point for all of Europe’s Christians. The network of routes is plentiful and perhaps the most popular (and most crowded) is the Camino Francés. It begins in St. Jean-Pied-du-Port near Biarritz (France) and is approximately 500 miles in length. The Pilgrims’ WayEnglandPilgrims Way CanterburyMurdered in 1170, Thomas Becket was buried in Canterbury Cathedral and pilgrims have flocked to the shrine ever since. However, the route to Canterbury goes further back than that. The route has ancient origins dating back to the Stone Age when these paths were used to access sites like Stonehenge. The Canterbury Tales, by Geoffrey Chaucer, is a collection of stories about a group of pilgrims and their journey from London to Canterbury.While most of the original route is now paved over by a modern network of roads, there are some sections that exist so that pilgrims can still make their way on foot to the shrine to pay their respects to St. Thomas Becket.Via FrancigenaItalyVie FrancigenaThe ancient pilgrim route to Rome begins as far away as Canterbury (England). During medieval times, the Via Francigena was the perfect pilgrimage for those seeking spiritual renewal and to see the tombs of the apostles Peter and Paul. Like other pilgrim routes around the world, there is more than one route from origin to destination. Historically, there was a network of paths to reach the Holy City and many paths varied depending on season, political situations, and varying trade routes.While this route is less popular than the Camino de Santiago, it is growing in popularity and is substantially longer than other, providing an alternative to other pilgrimages or for those looking for longer walks to accomplish once completing other, less intense pilgrim routes.If thrill-seeking is more your thing than spiritual enlightenment, skip the pilgrimages and trek the world’s most dangerous hikes instead. The Best Podcasts to Listen to During Your Workout 11 of the Best Low-Calorie Craft Beers for Watching Your Beer Belly 7 Mountain Bike Destinations to Put On Your Bucket List How to Cultivate Mid-Century Modern Style in Your Own Home 12 Reasons South Dakota Deserves Your Attention Editors’ Recommendations
Experimental study on the effect of diet on fatty acid and stable isotope profiles of the squid Lolliguncula brevis
Fatty acid and stable isotope analyses have previously been used to investigate foraging patterns of fish, birds, marine mammals and most recently cephalopod species. To evaluate the application of these methods for dietary studies in squid, it is important to understand the degree to which fatty acid and stable isotope signatures of prey species are reflected in the squids’ tissue. Four groups of Lolliguncula brevis were fed on prey species with distinctly different fatty acid and stable isotope profiles over 30 consecutive days. One group of squid were fed fish for fifteen days, followed by crustaceans for a further fifteen days. A second and third group were fed exclusively on fish or crustaceans for thirty days. And a fourth group was fed on a mixture of fish and crustaceans for thirty days. Analysis of squid tissue showed that, after 10 days of feeding, fatty acid profiles of squid tended to reflect those of their prey. Squid that fed on a single prey type, i.e. fish or crustacean, showed only minor modifications in fatty acid proportions after the initial change and fatty acid profiles were clearly distinguishable between the two feeding groups. Shifts in fatty acid proportions towards respective prey profiles could clearly be observed in squid the diet of which was swapped after 15 days. Clear differences could also be seen in fatty acid profiles of squid feeding on a mixed diet with trends towards either fish or crustacean fatty acid signatures. Stable isotope signatures of squid tissues clearly distinguished between animals feeding on different diets and supported findings from fatty acid analysis, thus indicating both methods to be viable tools in feeding studies on squid species.