Rabat – The World Bank has published its report of the 2018 Regulatory Indicators for Sustainable Energy (RISE) that listed 133 countries’ renewable energies improvements, giving Morocco a score of 74. RISE is informs investors of the sustainable energy policies and regulations of a given country.The World Bank surveyed 133 countries based on data provided by governments from 2010 to 2017. Alongside China, Brazil, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa, Morocco emerged as a prominent example of a country that has put in place advanced policy frameworks in support of sustainable energy.The report gave Morocco a score of 74 points for sustainable energy indicators, including access to electricity (100 points), energy efficiency (56 points), and renewable energy (67 points).In terms of energy efficiency, Morocco scored high with 80 points in the national energy efficiency planning indicator, 100 points in energy efficiency indicator, and 96 points in energy efficiency incentives from electricity rate structures. However, Morocco scored low in other indicators, including incentives and mandates put in place for the public sector (13 points), for industrial and commercial end users (13 points), transport (0 points), and minimum energy efficiency performance standards (32 points).Regarding renewable energies, Morocco did well in the legal framework for renewable energy (100 points), planning for renewable energy expansion (83), and attributes of financial and regulatory incentives (83 points).The report gave a medium score to incentive and regulatory support for renewable energy (62 points), counterparty risk (65), carbon pricing and monitoring (50), and use (23 points).Morocco produces 28,000 gigawatt hours of electricity, while the rest is imported from Spain.It seeks to boost its production capacity by 6,500 megawatts by 2020, with solar and wind energies each representing 2,000 megawatts, according to a US International Trade Administration 2017 report.
The UV environment of the Beagle 2 landing site: detailed investigations and detection of atmospheric state
December 25th 2003 will see the Beagle 2 lander arrive at the surface of Mars in the Isidis region, allowing for the first time in situ measurements of ultraviolet (UV) flux directly from the surface of Mars through the use of a sensor designed as part of a miniaturised environmental package. The expected conditions the sensor will experience are studied here, and the detection signatures for phenomenon such as dust devils. H2O clouds ands near-surface fogs are presented. The beginning and end of mission surface fluxes show little variation, though the period towards mid-nominal mission does experience a maximum in total daily dose levels. Diurnal profiles are calculated highlighting the effects of increased scattering towards shorter wavelengths. A possible dust storm scenario is presented, and the effect upon component UV fluxes is shown to reverse the relative contributions of direct and diffuse components of the total UV flux. The presence of cloud formation above the landing site will be detectable though the observation of elevated diffuse/direct flux ratios. Near-surface morning fogs show a characteristic ‘dip’ in the morning profile when compared to clear mornings, allowing their detection on cloud-free mornings through post-event analysis of long term data. Predicted Phobos eclipses are investigated at each of the sensor centre wavelengths, and show greatest reduction in relative intensity at short wavelengths. Observations of near-miss eclipse events will also be possible, through monitoring of the diffuse UV flux. Dust devil encounters are shown to create a double minima lightcurve, with the depth of the minima dependent upon the total dust loading of the vortex. The effects of these changing conditions on DNA-weighted irradiances are investigated. Possible dust storms provide the greatest increase in biological protection, whereas expected cloud formations at the Beagle 2 site are found to offer negligible protection. Within just five minutes of landing > 95% of any Bacillus subtilis-like bacteria present on the surface of the craft will have lost viability.