However, the government took strong preventative efforts, including the convictions of two labor recruitment agents who committed fraudulent recruitment offenses, and enhanced inter-ministerial coordination through monthly meetings.The U.S report urged Sri Lanka to improve efforts to investigate and prosecute suspected trafficking offenses, and convict and punish trafficking offenders, particularly those responsible for recruiting victims with fraudulent offers of employment and excessive commission fees for the purpose of subjecting them to forced labor; develop and implement formal victim referral procedures; ensure that victims of trafficking found within Sri Lanka are not detained or otherwise penalized for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of their being trafficked, such as visa violations or prostitution; train local law enforcement on victim identification, investigation of cases, and assembling strong cases; facilitate the speedy repatriation of foreign trafficking victims by providing airfare and not obligating them to remain in the country if they choose to initiate law enforcement proceedings; provide witness protection and incentives for victims to cooperate with law enforcement to enable prosecutions; improve services for shelters, legal aid, counseling, and trained staff at embassies in destination countries; promote safe tourism campaigns to ensure that child sex tourism does not increase with expected rapid growth of tourism; promote safe and legal migration rather than discouraging migration or imposing age restrictions on migrants; and improve regulation and monitoring of recruitment agencies and village level brokers. (Colombo Gazette) A small number of women from Thailand, China, and countries in South Asia, Europe, and the former Soviet Union may be subjected to forced prostitution in Sri Lanka, the report said.According to the report last year, the government did not convict any trafficking offenders. Serious problems remain, particularly in protecting victims of trafficking in Sri Lanka and abroad, and not addressing official complicity in human trafficking. Some child domestic workers in Colombo, generally from the Tamil tea-estate sector of the country, are subjected to physical, sexual, and mental abuse, nonpayment of wages, and restrictions of their government. The report says there are reports of children being subjected to bonded labor and forced labor in dry-zone farming areas on plantations, and in the fireworks and fish-drying industries. The U.S State Department’s annual report on human trafficking says in Sri Lanka boys are still more likely than girls to be forced into prostitution in coastal areas for domestic child sex tourism.Secretary of State Hillary Clinton released the report, Tuesday, which placed Sri Lanka on Tier 2 among countries whose governments do not fully comply with the minimum standards to counter human trafficking, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards.
The UV environment of the Beagle 2 landing site: detailed investigations and detection of atmospheric state
December 25th 2003 will see the Beagle 2 lander arrive at the surface of Mars in the Isidis region, allowing for the first time in situ measurements of ultraviolet (UV) flux directly from the surface of Mars through the use of a sensor designed as part of a miniaturised environmental package. The expected conditions the sensor will experience are studied here, and the detection signatures for phenomenon such as dust devils. H2O clouds ands near-surface fogs are presented. The beginning and end of mission surface fluxes show little variation, though the period towards mid-nominal mission does experience a maximum in total daily dose levels. Diurnal profiles are calculated highlighting the effects of increased scattering towards shorter wavelengths. A possible dust storm scenario is presented, and the effect upon component UV fluxes is shown to reverse the relative contributions of direct and diffuse components of the total UV flux. The presence of cloud formation above the landing site will be detectable though the observation of elevated diffuse/direct flux ratios. Near-surface morning fogs show a characteristic ‘dip’ in the morning profile when compared to clear mornings, allowing their detection on cloud-free mornings through post-event analysis of long term data. Predicted Phobos eclipses are investigated at each of the sensor centre wavelengths, and show greatest reduction in relative intensity at short wavelengths. Observations of near-miss eclipse events will also be possible, through monitoring of the diffuse UV flux. Dust devil encounters are shown to create a double minima lightcurve, with the depth of the minima dependent upon the total dust loading of the vortex. The effects of these changing conditions on DNA-weighted irradiances are investigated. Possible dust storms provide the greatest increase in biological protection, whereas expected cloud formations at the Beagle 2 site are found to offer negligible protection. Within just five minutes of landing > 95% of any Bacillus subtilis-like bacteria present on the surface of the craft will have lost viability.