The Russian Forest Sector Outlook Study to 2030 states that lack of governance, outdated equipment and under-financing are among major factors that impede the development of the forest sector in Russia – which has more than a fifth of the world’s forests, but whose share of the global trade in forest products is less than four per cent. The report urges immediate action on modernizing the country’s forest sector, as well as increasing its investment attractiveness, stimulating domestic demand for forest products such as wooden housing and furniture, addressing the illegal logging issues and reforming forest public institutions and legislation. “The study broadens our knowledge about the huge opportunities and possible development potential of the Russian Federation’s forest sector,” FAO Assistant Director-General for Forestry Eduardo Rojas-Briales stated in a news release.“Modernizing Russia’s forests will have a positive impact on social, economic and environmental conditions in the Russian Federation and will contribute to the development of world forestry, forest industry, wood trade and the environment.”FAO noted that forests in Russia – the largest forest country in the world – play a crucial role in stabilizing the globe’s climate. The country provided more than 90 per cent of the carbon sink of the world’s boreal forests in 2000-2007. Estimates of the average carbon sink in Russian forests during the past 10 years are between 500 and 700 million tonnes per year. There is a serious risk, however, that the carbon emissions from the permafrost lands of Russia are likely to exceed current emissions from tropical deforestation by several times, if global warming becomes a reality, added FAO.
The cost and benefits of territorial tenure, and factors affecting mating success in male Antarctic fur seals
The timing, location and duration of territorial tenure, and the mating success and return rates of male Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) were measured over four consecutive breeding seasons (1984–87) on Bird Island (54°00’S, 38°02’W), South Georgia. Tenure duration (days) followed a heavily skewed, Poisson-like distribution (median 13.08 days, maximum 75 days) and was positively related to the number of years of tenure (rs= 0.52, P 0.7) or to the level of mating success in the current year (P > 0.15). It was, however, positively related to the duration of tenure in the current year (P < 0.0001). The overall annual return rate was 43% which is not significantly different from the survival rate for the general male population and suggests that territorial tenure does not contribute to increased mortality in male Antarctic fur seals.