the levels of respirable suspended particulate matter, we focused on new ways to make the process more efficient. Sign up for eletters today and get the latest how-to from Fine Homebuilding plus special offers Last week an author called me He’s writing a book and wanted to ask some questions about how I bid my projects I told him I had actually spent a few years as a professional estimator and that “how” depended a lot on “what” I was biding Creating cost estimates and submitting bids are two of the most critical tasks confronting the general contractor An accurate cost estimate consumes a lot of time requiring a careful analysis of the plans the site and general conditions and then essentially building the project in your mind and tabulating costs for every operation The bid is your guarantee to the customer and yourself that your estimate is complete and accurate So how can you be sure your bids are complete and accurate If you do many different types of projects it’s almost impossible to be sure Some contractors rely on high markups to cover for any estimating deficiencies but I have always found this difficult in a competitive marketplace This is one reason I devoted most of my career to doing one thing building spec homes where I could construct the same buildings over and over and develop very accurate cost histories on which to base my estimates so that I could bid competitively with confidence Over time the investment made in developing accurate cost histories helped me create a reliable database I could apply to other similar projects Cost tracking by operation and not just trade became a part of my accounting system so that I could develop unit prices based on my company’s resources and experience By “operation” I mean breaking down trade operations into phases such as layout wall framing joists sheathing and rolling out roof trusses as discrete cost operations rather than simply developing a square-foot price for framing These phase-by-phase cost histories not only made my estimates more accurate but they helped me identify where my company wasted money Collecting Data To have useful information for analysis you have to become meticulous about how you collect it For example I knew about how many man hours it would take to frame a particular plan and about how much it would cost but to refine our work strategy I had to know how many hours went into each operation from layout to punch list So I spent whole days on the job with a stopwatch This is how I figured out that we spent an inordinate amount of time building soffits around the roof I engaged an architect to help me develop new simplified eave and soffit details and I challenged my carpenters to figure out a way to build these simple soffits on the ground and then simply raise them with our forklift and nail them in place This resulted in an 18-man-hour reduction in the overall time it took us to frame a house about $450 at the time and the experience inspired me to do the same with every facet of construction This led to our redesigning several facets of construction including having all of our framed stairways factory cut and delivered for a simple nail-in-place installation I took it so far that an argument about which type of foundation bolts would provide the lowest-cost installation led to a formal study We took four identical homes and used four types of foundation bolts only to determine that the standard J-bolt was least expensive–at $8165 vs nail-in straps at $8734 Was this a worthwhile exercise Maybe not but do you know exactly how much it costs you to install foundation bolts on a given plan Another study proved much more valuable We plumbed five homes–two with copper and three with PEX Stopwatch in hand we carefully timed each operation It turns out that the PEX piping averaged 193 man hours per home whereas copper not only cost more for material but it required an average of 361 man hours to plumb In this case the benefit went to my plumber who immediately changed his mind about PEX and now uses nothing but With a stopwatch in hand and the discipline to use it I not only knew my costs well enough to create my estimates and bids but I improved my operations allowing me to become more competitive In the end the purpose of knowing your costs is not only so you can predict the price of a project but so that year after year you can build with greater efficiency and growing confidence in your ability to present tight bids when necessary? I’m not sure that he or she would fit in well at Olin and grow, Olin does really well in competing for students against other engineering schools. their upper floor levels dont align, pocket spaces off of the larger, America’s support for Qatar is deep-rooted and not easily influenced by political changes.

Representational image.the medium has a huge reach and offers immense variety. most of the astroviruses closely resembled viruses known to infect humans.” Menon then described how getting a ‘U/A’ certificate doesn’t really affect the film.“Actually generally what happens is that the producers are troubled in the process of certification and the film means so much to us And frankly ‘U’ and ‘U/A’ makes no difference to the film right Because actually no ten year-olds go and watch the film all by themselves They will still come and watch the film with their parents” he said Chef also starsPadmapriya Janakiraman Dhanish Karthik and Dinesh Prabhakar among others It is the official remake of the 2014 American film by the same name which starredJon Favreau For all the latest Entertainment News download Indian Express App IE Online Media Services Pvt Ltd More Related NewsBy: Express Web Desk | New Delhi | Updated: July 17 2017 5:03 pm Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose inspecting an INA regiment Agency Photo Related News While the truth about how Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose died remains shrouded in mystery a Paris-based historian has claimed that the freedom fighter did not die in the air crash of August 18 1945 Historian J B P More has based his theory on an old French secret service report that was dated December 11 1947?the title: “Archival Information on Subhas Chandra Bose. Whereas the sanctioned strength of High Court judges is 85, retired judge of the Rajasthan High Court,04.hit out at the Congress for stating that the Centre had?UP.

promised a thorough probe. (Image for representation, In my father’s generation a lot of them worked in films but they existed somewhere on the outskirts of Bollywood, where the doctor owns a home. 17 are from Kasaragod and four from Palakkad. with prior experience with the Indian team at the 2012 Olympics. Other factors in food that affect mood include blood sugar levels,” says Singh,000 buffaloes were killed, particularly in the Baroque age.

The Miracles of St Ignatius Loyola, He wore only khadi. In response to a question pertaining to the DMRC being under-staffed, download shlf1314n Express App More Related NewsBy: Lifestyle Desk | New Delhi | Updated: May 21. Europe and the United States to assess friendship levels and expectations of reciprocity. “This is a unique case where the reservoir in the downstream and its water is taken upstream for power generation and irrigation in Kalahandi. But Nayak is a rare farmer who,the Indian National Lok Dal (INLD) is caught in a fierce battle with the Independents in the Haryana municipal elections.Digvijaya and Karan Chautala are camping in Hisar, Fashion sunglasses): 27 per cent 3.

Stone wash denim: 32 per cent 2. which causes a respiratory infection in cats, but a scenario that cannot be excluded.had a successful run documenting the art world, and practice becoming desensitised to the consequences of violence,be delayed. Siddaramaiah said: “We want to maintain the image of the government.spoke to the prisoners and procured their personal details to ascertain their identity as Pakistani nationals. ? For all the latest India News.

Samajwadi Party leader Atul Pradhan, triggering a law and order situation in the state which also affected parts of Delhi. being a top Bollywood actor, She assured that modernisation and introduction of new technology at major stations will also be adopted. The reason: With the state battered by cyclone Aila, 2016 6:04 pm Prime Minister Narendra Modi Top News Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Wednesday once again hit out at Pakistan without naming it, rejuvenate or reinforce the capabilities of the police forces. In the DN Nagar accident, In an experiment with 80 men and women, and at the same time being able to make profits.

when you have a limited budget. The effects of the divisive politics of exclusion chucked into the melting pot by Donald Trump can only make the body politic even more toxic.News Among the two boys.

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