ONE: Silva ends Suzuki’s undefeated streak

first_imgAlex Silva put an end to Hayato Suzuki’s winning streak in ONE Championship earning a superb submission victory in the Legends of the World card Friday at Mall of Asia Arena.Brazil’s Silva (6-1) transitioned from his guard position and isolated Suzuki’s (17-1) left arm for an arm bar, forcing the Japanese to tap 1:22 into the first round of their strawweight division fight.ADVERTISEMENT Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Margot Robbie talks about filming ‘Bombshell’s’ disturbing sexual harassment scene Jake says relationship with Shaina ‘goes beyond physical attraction’ Jo Koy: My brain always wants to think funny It’s too early to present Duterte’s ‘legacy’ – Lacson Belingon dominates Chung in ONE bantamweight clash Jake says relationship with Shaina ‘goes beyond physical attraction’ Reece Mclaren of Australia also earned his own submission victory after methodically tiring out Thailand’s Anatpong Bunrad.Mclaren (10-5) had several transitions before strapping Bunrad (5-4) in a D’Arce choke that forced the Thai flyweight to tap with eight seconds left in the first, 4:52.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSRedemption is sweet for Ginebra, Scottie ThompsonSPORTSMayweather beats Pacquiao, Canelo for ‘Fighter of the Decade’SPORTSFederer blasts lack of communication on Australian Open smogIn the featherweight division, China’s Zhao Zhikang submitted Cambodia’s Thai Ritty 2:31 in the first round of their featherweight bout.Zhao put Ritty in a rear naked choke to go up 10-1 while the Cambodian fell to 6-3.center_img Coco’s house rules on ‘Probinsyano’ set MOST READ OSG plea to revoke ABS-CBN franchise ‘a duplicitous move’ – Lacson Kiss-and-tell matinee idol’s conquests: True stories or tall tales? LATEST STORIES Redemption is sweet for Ginebra, Scottie Thompson View comments Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles02:18Alvarez ready to take risk vs Folayang, looks to end clash by ‘knockout or submission’01:42Stars face off at ONE: Dawn of Heroes02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player awardlast_img read more

BC ranchers prepare for possibly a grim winter

first_imgEnvironment Canada puts the average amount for the five month period from June through October in this area at 282 millimeters.So far this year, with only two weeks to go in that period, we’ve received just slightly more than half that amount…143. Members of the BC Cattlemen’s Association are preparing for what could be a harsh winter. Because of the extended drought conditions this year, some ranchers have dipped into their winter food stores two months early. Others have started selling off cattle, so they’ll have smaller heards to feed. – Advertisement -General Manager Kevin Boone says ranchers here in the Peace, as well as those in the Cariboo and Chilcotin, have been the hardest hit. In this area we are now more than half way into what is shaping up to be, the 5th consecutive month with less than average precipitation.There was a trace recorded yesterday, but we’ve still only had about one millimeter in the first 17 days of a month, in which the norm is 25.8Advertisementlast_img read more

Kilcar GAA: Bingo jackpot rises to €8,600

first_imgWeek Seven Winners: €1,000 Eimear Carr, Keenaghan €500 Patricia McGuire, Dunkineely  €300 Noel McGinley, Cashlings €200 Conal A Gildea, Ardara, Nollaig Gillespie, Dachtan and Kieran O’Gara, Glencolmcille.Paid up member’s draw winners: €500 Amy McGinley, An Glásan, Towney Road and Betty Carr, Glencolmcille.Presentation Night The 2016 club presentation night takes place on Wednesday 28th December also in The Blue Haven more details to follow.Club GearWe have Club gear on sale in Áislann Chill Chartha with adult and kid’s club home jerseys, half zip tops, polo shirts,  kit bags, bobble hats, jackets, hoodies, stickers, shorts etc.Club App We have 237 members on our FREE mobile app if you would like to sign up just follow these steps to download your free team App for CLG Chill Chartha.1. On your phone or iPad go to the app store 2. Search for Team App 3. Install Team App to your phone 4. Search for CLG Chill Chartha 5. Log in and register for the CLG Chill Chartha Club app. 6. You will receive an email notification when you are added you to the system.Lotto There was no winner of the Club Lotto Jackpot so next week’s Jackpot is €3,400 this week’s numbers were: 2, 14, 16 and 22 winners were: €50 Fidelma Burke, Bruckless €30 Kieran Moriarty, Caherisveen, Co. Kerry €20 K Kenney, Cashel, Glencolmcille and Stephanie and Karen, Cashlings, Kilcar.Club Bingo Jackpot €8,600There was no winner of the Jackpot so it’s now €8,600 on 45 numbers; Club Bingo is on in The Parish Hall on Sunday nights at 8:30pm so please support to be in with a chance of winning the Jackpot and thanks to all who continue to support our Bingo! This week’s winners were: €150 Margaret McShane €100 Joan McGuinness, Triona McShane €80 Ellen O’Donnell €70 Suzanne McShane, Noreen O’Leary, Margaret Doherty, Arlene Cunnea, Brenda Byrne and Grainne McBrearty. For the latest news visit our website www.clgchillchartha.com you can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at facebook.com/CillCharthaGAA and @KilcarGAAKilcar GAA: Bingo jackpot rises to €8,600 was last modified: December 5th, 2016 by Chris McNultyShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:kilcarKilcar GAAKilcar GAA club newslast_img read more

Incoming Arsenal man’s ‘save of the season’

first_imgArsenal are edging closer to signing Bayer Leverkusen’s Bernd Leno.A £19.2million deal is in the pipeline for a player who helped his side finish fifth in the Bundesliga last season.The 26-year-old has been with the club since leaving Stuttgart in 2011 and shortly after joining became the only the third goalkeeper in the league’s history to keep three clean sheets in his first three top flight games.Last season, in a 2-0 defeat to Schalke, Leno made this incredible save to deny Breel Embolo a goal when the forward tried to chip him in the last 10 minutes of the game.It was voted save of the season last term by fans on the Bundesliga’s YouTube channel and it’s not hard to see why.Gooners, though, will be hoping this type of thing is a one-off if he does join the club.He idolised Real Madrid and Spain legend Iker Casillas when he was growing up. “He’s calm and no-nonsense, I’m the same,” he said in an interview on bundesliga.com. “I don’t have to make a show of myself to stand out.”He puts his body on the line, too, as you can see in this video.In 2011, Bayer Leverkusen head coach Robin Dutt said Leno was in the same league as Petr Cech and now it remains to be seen whether the German replaces Cech or David Ospina at Arsenal.last_img read more

FAR FROM HOME AND LIVING HERE: ‘THE IRISH ARE NICE TO US BUT THEY DON’T ASK US TO MEET, WE ARE SEPARATE’

first_imgSPECIAL REPORT: YOUNG JOURNALISTS from the group Headliners investigate racism in Donegal. This is their article:Although police statistics suggest Buncrana is not a racist place, there are people from other countries living here who find life very difficult and lonely as they struggle to fit in.There are others who may be suffering in silence as many are afraid to report incidence of racist abuse. We wanted to give these young people a voice. We wanted to hear their stories so others can be aware of just how hard it is for them.Robert (13) came from Romania two years ago. He said: “I found it most difficult making new friends, it was hard to get to know them but once I got to know them, we were good friends then. I think the rest of my family find it hard fitting in too.”Fourteen-year-old Ola from Poland agreed. She said: “It was difficult at the start. At first it was the language, I couldn’t speak it at all, but now it is that I only have Polish friends. The Irish are nice to us but they don’t ask us out to meet, we are separate.“We came about five and a half years ago because my Dad needed a job and there wasn’t much in Poland. I was scared leaving, I didn’t know the language, I had to make new friends, the school was new, everything was completely new. I had to leave behind my grannies, my cousins -nearly all my family – it was just me, my parents and brother.” Jadzia, who is 13, also had to leave behind most of her relatives when she moved to Buncrana from Poland six years ago.Jadzia said: “I was 7 when we moved so I didn’t have a say, I didn’t want to move but we had to because we were finding it very difficult in Poland. It was hard but there was no other choice. I had to leave behind most of my family, though my uncle and cousins came a year later. I feel sort of different to other young people here.“Racism is caused by people who see others differently and judge them for what they see,” she added.Robert said: ““I think racism is caused when people don’t understand why people are different.” While none of the young people we spoke to felt they had been the victim of a racist attack, they all hoped that they would be able to tell someone, such as a teacher, if they were. But Ola added: “I don’t know, maybe I’d be too scared.”However, all three believed that Buncrana was a good place to be – apart from the weather, for Ola! Robert said: ““My advice to anyone coming here would be – don’t worry, people are friendly” while Jadzia said: “My advice is not to be scared of Irish people, they’re not really that scary.”We hope that by highlighting the experiences and opinions of some of the young people who have come to live in Buncrana from other countries that we will help other young people understand the impact of racism and prejudice better and help them interact with young people from different countries and cultures in a friendlier way.About this story: WRITTEN BY YOUNG JOURNALISTS FROM HEADLINERSBy Megan (15), Shauna (14) and Robert (13) FAR FROM HOME AND LIVING HERE: ‘THE IRISH ARE NICE TO US BUT THEY DON’T ASK US TO MEET, WE ARE SEPARATE’ was last modified: April 22nd, 2011 by gregShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:buncranadonegaldonegaldailyHeadlinersracismlast_img read more

SHOCK AT SUDDEN DEATH OF KILLYBEGS FISHERMEN’S LEADER

first_imgThe late Martin Howley who passed away yesterday.There has been widespread shock at the sudden death of Killybegs-based fishing tycoon Martin Howley.Mr Howley, aged 63, died after a short illness and was a leader in the fishing industry in Killybegs and worldwide.Born in Co Sligo, he came to Killybegs in the 1970s and, along with a small number of other influential figures, has been a force for growth ever since. After fishing for 30 years, he came ashore to take over as managing director of Swan Net Ltd in 1999 and led that company to continued growth and development.He has also been an influential member of the Killybegs Fishermen’s Organisation (KFO) and took part in negotiations both within the EU and beyond on behalf of fishing interests.A year ago, he was named managing director of a new company, Bio Marine Ingredients Ireland, which is planning to build a state-of-the-art facility in Killybegs for the extraction of fish oils, proteins and calcium for human consumption.That company is an amalgamation of the KFO and a Norwegian enterprise. The proposal is still in the planning process. Martin Howley was closely involved at all levels of the fishing industry, as a fisherman, in fish processing and net making. With other local Killybegs businessmen, he also had business interests in the United States fishing industry.Said Joey Murrin, former chairman and chief executive of the KFO: “Martin will be a tremendous loss to the fishing industry and a tremendous loss to the community. He was a natural-born leader. He will be sadly missed.”He is survived by his wife, Theresa, daughter Marguerite, and sons, Pauric, Noel and Sean.Local TD Thomas Pringle said “‘Martin Howley was a pioneer of the pelagic fishery in Ireland who was as comfortable at the helm of a boat as the boardroom of the KFO. He contributed to building a respected reputation world wide for Donegal fishermen’s skills and expertise. I would like to extend my sympathy to his family in this difficult time’.Martin will also be sadly missed by his wide circle of family and friends. SHOCK AT SUDDEN DEATH OF KILLYBEGS FISHERMEN’S LEADER was last modified: August 18th, 2015 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Major clerical changes announced in Raphoe Diocese

first_imgBishop Alan McGuckian SJ has announced eleven new appointments in the diocese of Raphoe.The diocese makes up the greater part of Co. Donegal and has a Catholic population of 83,050, 33 parishes and 71 churches.There are 56 diocesan priests in active ministry in the diocese and 19 others who are currently working in other dioceses, retired, on study or on sick leave. Notable moves for 2017 include Fr Eamon McLaughlin of Conwal and Leck joining the Congregation for the Clergy in Rome, while Monsignor Kevin Gillespie will be returning from the Vatican City to the Cathedral Parish.The full list of appointments are as follows:Fr Gerard Cunningham, CC, Fintown and Administrator Glenties to be PP Glenties (Iniskeel).Fr Donnchadh Ó Baoill, CC, Cnoc Fola, to be CC, FintownCanon Michael Herrity, PP, Annagry to be PE (Pastor Emeritus), AP, Cnoc FolaFr Nigel Ó Gallchóir, CC, Dungloe to be PP, AnnagryMgr Kevin Gillespie, Congregation for the Clergy, Rome, to be CC, Conwal and Leck (Cathedral Parish)Fr Eamon McLaughlin, CC, Conwal and Leck (Cathedral Parish) to the Congregation for the Clergy in Rome.Fr Adrian Gavigan, CC, Milford and Kerrykeel to be CC, Parish of Templecrone (Dungloe) with residence in Leitirmacaward.Fr Rory Brady, resident in Conwal and Leck to be CC, Milford & Kerrykeel.Fr John Joe Duffy, CC, Stranorlar to be CC, Creeslough.Fr Lukasz Przewislik, SChr, Polish Chaplaincy, Archdiocese of Dublin to be CC, Stranorlar and Chaplain to the Polish Community in the Diocese of Raphoe.Fr Morty O’Shea, solt, CC, Leitirmacaward and Doochary to be CC, Ardaghey (Inver).Bishop of Raphoe Alan McGuckian. (North West Newspix)His Holiness Pope Francis appointed Father Alan McGuckian SJ as Bishop of Raphoe on 9 June 2017.  Living and working in the diocese, from religious congregations, there are 10 priests, 2 Brothers and 30 Sisters.  The Bishop of Raphoe is patron of 100 primary schools, and there are 20 voluntary secondary schools and State schools in the diocese.   Major clerical changes announced in Raphoe Diocese was last modified: September 6th, 2017 by Rachel McLaughlinShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Father Alan McGuckian SJraphoe dioceselast_img read more

This week in the ‘Woods: Women’s soccer wins big, Football edged out on the road

first_imgFootball: Contra Costa 35 Redwoods 33Roberto Ortiz made two 40-plus yard field goals on the day but missed a 33-yard try as time expired in a 35-33 loss for College of the Redwoods, Saturday afternoon on the road at Contra Costa in what was the American-Pacific 7 Conference opener for both teams.Redwoods quarterback Brody Lucero passed for three touchdowns, two to Jamari Sweet and the other to Marcus Finney.Zachary Mahoney blocked a punt on special teams and returned it for a touchdown for …last_img

The Factor Economists Neglected in their Models: Integrity

first_imgIs economics a science?  It’s on that borderland that has many things in common with the sciences; it is highly law-governed (law of supply and demand, for instance); it uses mathematical models; it uses experimental methods; it develops theories.  Granted for the time being that it is a kind of science (albeit a “soft science” or “social science”), some economists are recognizing that they have been failing to include an important factor in their models – morality.  PhysOrg mentioned that factor in a surprising headline today: “Researcher considers the role of morality in modern economic theory.”  The first paragraph elaborated with an even stronger word –The worldwide financial crisis in 2008, which led to what many in the United States now call the “Great Recession,” has caused researchers to rethink traditional economic theories of financial markets and the corporate world.  Even renowned financial theorist Michael Jensen, whose widely cited work has laid the foundation for the broad use of stock options as an executive compensation tool, has called on his fellow researchers to incorporate “integrity” into their economic models.The economists are not just taking a moralizing stance here, as if they need to preach to stockholders and traders, telling them they had better play fair.  No – they are realizing that partakers of contracts and financial arrangements really do have moral sensibilities that affect their behaviors.    The article highlights the theories of Douglas Stevens, an associate professor of accounting at Florida State University, who has for years incorporated morality into his models.  Now, inspired by Jensen’s call, he has co-authored a peer-reviewed paper in Accounting, Organizations and Society called “A Moral Solution to the Moral Hazard Problem.”  When did you ever hear the phrase “Moral Solution” in a peer-reviewed paper?    Stevens has incorporated a radical new idea in his thesis.  It’s not enough, he says, to attract a principal (like an employee or contract partner) with financial incentives.  Previous models have neglected moral content.  They focused on more and riskier incentives – some of which led to the financial collapse of 2008.  Instead, Stevens broke with the traditional “principal-agent” model of incentives, which assumed a moral sensitivity of zero, and factored in the moral sensitivities of the agents.  “Thus, their model answers Jensen’s call to incorporate integrity into economic theory,” the article said; “This is significant because principal-agent theory, the most mathematically formal economic theory of the firm, has previously been closed to moral content.”    The new model explains things that the old model found baffling – like why people often do more than incentives provide:“We know from simple observation that the traditional principal-agent model is not fully descriptive of real-world behavior,” Stevens said.  “A majority of people are paid a fixed salary in their jobs and yet provide sufficient effort for their pay.  This is particularly true in professions and nonprofit firms where the financial incentives required by the traditional model are difficult if not impossible to arrange.  The traditional principal-agent model can’t explain this behavior.  Our model, however, demonstrates that a principal can pay a morally sensitive agent a fixed salary that is increasing in the productivity of the agent’s effort.”    Their model also demonstrates the value of moral sensitivity to the firm and society.    “Our model suggests that moral sensitivity increases the efficiency of principal-agent relationships within the firm – which makes more of these relationships possible – and allows the agent to receive a fixed salary that is increasing in his or her productivity or skill,” Stevens said.  “Thus, moral sensitivity increases the general welfare of society by decreasing unemployment and increasing the productivity and pay of those who are employed.  This explains the emphasis placed on moral training within the firm and society at large.  This also provides a warning against letting moral sensitivity diminish.”Who would have thought that morality is a factor in reducing unemployment, as well as increasing productivity – regardless of incentives?  That is actually a principle taught in the Bible – that work should be done “as unto the Lord,” not with “eye-service” just to please men (Colossians 3:23, Ephesians 6:5-6).  The renowned “Protestant work ethic” taught individuals to believe that a job well done has intrinsic value, regardless of incentives or compensation.    In closing, the article (actually a press release from Florida State University), emphasized the importance of professional ethics training as, if you will, a “moral” of the story.  “Every financial crisis and scandal is a wake-up call – for both practitioners and academics,” Stevens said.  “Hopefully, we won’t waste yet another financial crisis.”Where does ethics come from?  To find the source, don’t walk across campus to the science lab, where the Dawk is telling impressionable frosh that they are evolved slimeballs.  Don’t go to the auditorium where Shermer is telling them intelligent design is a myth and a pseudoscience, and we must use Reason, but he can’t for the life of him tell us a reason why.  Don’t walk over to the Humanities, where the profs want to divide everybody into groups of the aggrieved who want to hold placards with upraised fists dripping in blood and chant, with foaming mouths, “End the Hate!”  Don’t go to the Astronomy department, where they say universes just happen from time to time, and ours is just one of an infinity that popped into existence out of a quantum fluctuation, and is on the way to a heat death.  Don’t go to the music department where they tell you hip-hop is the equivalent of Bach.  Don’t go to the History department, where the profs have no idea why functionally modern humans spent 800,000 years grunting in caves, then decided in the blink of an eye to build cities, ships, trade, agriculture, writing, economics, warfare, manufacturing, mathematics, law, religion, morality and philosophy.    No, to find morality, use your head.  You have a conscience.  Where did that come from?  It didn’t evolve.  You know innately that certain things are good and certain things are evil.  Good and evil refer to eternal standards.  Conscience, in a sense, is a law of nature.  Paul, a “scientist” of that inner law, explained, “For when the Gentiles [i.e., non-Jews] who do not have the law [the Jewish Scriptures], by nature do what the law requires [i.e., knowing that murder, theft and adultery are wrong], they are a law to themselves, even though they do not have the law.  They show that the work of the law is written on their hearts, while their conscience also bears witness, and their conflicting thoughts accuse or even excuse them….” (Romans 2:14-15).  We all know that is true by experience.  Steal something, and even if you get away with it and nobody knows about it but you, the proverbial devil and angel on your shoulders start having their argument in your ears.  People have moral sensibilities, and economic theorists have been amiss to ignore those factors in their models.  By treating people as mere Pavlovian dogs responding only to incentives, they have been missing out on how the real world operates.  Could that have led to bad forecasts that blindsided the world to one of the worst financial collapses in modern times?  Well, it’s about time to add the words morality and integrity back into economics theory – for practical reasons if for nothing else.    To find integrity, leave the campus, cross the street, and go into that building with the steeple.  There you will get to the source.  The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge (Proverbs 1).  You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind.  This is the great and first commandment.  And a second is like it: You shall love your neighbor as yourself.  On these two commandments depend all the Law and the Prophets. ((Matthew 22:34-40).    It’s nice to see that some economists are finding out that integrity matters.  The other sciences could use some integrity training.  There was a short-lived call for integrity in Science and Nature after the Hwang scandal in 2006 (02/05/2006).  Not much happened.  It was followed by shameless arrogance in Darwinist response to the movie Expelled in 2008, and then a half-hearted admission of fallibility after Climategate in late 2009.    This month there was a rare mention of the I-word in Science Daily that showed that the IQ (Integrity Quotient) in science needs improvement: “Ethics Experts Call for Refocus of Scientific Review to Ensure Integrity of Research Process.”  The article began, “In a paper published this week in the journal Science, experts caution that important ethical issues in the testing of new therapies like stem cells may not be receiving the attention they deserve.”  So here we are, four years after the Hwang scandal; has no improvement been made?  McGill University ethicist Jonathan Kimmerman, co-author of a study on how clinical trials are designed, said, “What is often overlooked is that allowing studies of poor scientific quality to proceed potentially undermines the entire scientific enterprise, because they undermine trust, consume scarce research resources, and weaken incentives for medical scientists to perform the best research they can.”    Scientists apparently don’t have the innate incentives to make progress on their own, so we may have to provide incentives for them.  Do your duty; take a scientist to church.  Tell him it’s an experience that’s out of this world, or it will bring true riches, or tell them it’s a science project – whatever incentive appeals to his or her maturity level.  Take someone who needs it, like the Dawk.  He’s already admitted that he prefers living in a Christian society instead of one that acts out Darwinian principles, so he is already inconsistent and needs to learn integrity.  If he kicks and screams, give him a pacifier so he doesn’t disrupt the hymn.  You may have to use childish incentives on him until he gains the maturity to exercise his conscience, but real progress will only be possible when he can explain and defend the source and ultimate reference of integrity.  That, of course, will only be the beginning of knowledge, but getting on the right path is a victory.(Visited 6 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Venus Transit Recalls Adventures of Yore

first_imgToday’s transit of Venus, in which our sister planet appears to cross the disk of the sun, will be the last till 2117.  As observatories and millions of people watch the rare planetary alignment, few may know the stories of astronomers who predicted them and explorers who risked life and limb to observe them.Watching the 7-hour event live on the internet (see Space.com) is a privilege that was unavailable the last time the paired events occurred (they come in pairs 8 years apart, separated by a more than a century).  Because some parts of Earth are in darkness when they occur, Europeans often had to travel far to get to places where they could watch.  Only 4 pairs of transits have been observed by humans since Johannes Kepler predicted them: the pair of 1631-1639, the pair in 1761-1769, the pair of 1874-1882 (for which John Philip Sousa composed a special march), and this pair in 2004-2012.Science Daily described how 18th century explorers had a much tougher time when they realized that important measurements could be made about the size of the solar system by observing the transit of Venus:The idea galvanized scientists who set off on expeditions around the world to view a pair of transits in the 1760s. The great explorer James Cook himself was dispatched to observe one from Tahiti, a place as alien to 18th-century Europeans as the Moon or Mars might seem to us now. Some historians have called the international effort the “the Apollo program of the 18th century.”Bolton Davidheiser, in his 1971 book Science and the Bible (Baker Book House, out of print) told a couple of lesser-known anecdotes about some of the observers of the previous pair of transits in the 17th century:     The great astronomer John [Johannes] Kepler had predicted mathe­matically that on December 6, 1631, the planet Venus would pass in front of the sun. Kepler himself did not live to see this day, but a Frenchman named Pierre Gassendi, prepared to observe the phenomenon. He watched in vain, for Venus made its transit across the face of the sun after the sun had set in Europe.According to Kepler, a transit would not occur again for over a hundred years. But an English boy in his teens, Jere­miah Horrocks, did some figuring of his own and found that Venus should repeat its performance in just a few years. Go­ing over his calculations, he found that indeed it was so and that Venus again should pass in front of the sun on Decem­ber 4, 1639. He was too timid to mention this to anyone except his best friend, William Crabtree.Modem astronomers can tell at what time of day such a phenomenon will be visible at any place on earth where it can be seen, but the calculations of Jeremiah Horrocks told him only the day, and it was to be a Sunday. If he saw this transit he would be the first to do so, for no one ever before had observed Venus move across the disk of the sun. After this day no one on earth would have an opportunity to see it for a hundred twenty-one years. Besides the rarity of the event it had important theoretical implications in the science of astronomy.But the transit was due to occur on a Sunday and “the in­ward voice seemed to tell him that the Creator Himself is more worthy of worship than the phenomena He has insti­tuted for admiration.” He watched the sun without interrup­tion from sunrise until it was time to go to church. He went to church. When he returned he hastened to his telescope. The transit had just begun! Where his friend Crabtree was watching, the sky was cloudy but it cleared long enough for him to see it also and to confirm the observation of Horrocks.It is interesting to note, in contrast to this, the experience of a Frenchman named Legentil who went to India to observe the next transit of Venus a hundred twenty-one years later. Because a war was in progress his ship was delayed and he did not reach land until after the transit was over. As the following transit was to occur only eight years later, he de­cided to remain in India and wait. When the day of the transit arrived the sky was cloudy and he saw nothing of it. After being shipwrecked twice on his way home, he arrived in France to find his heirs preparing to divide his posses­sions.Between that time and the present, Venus has crossed the face of the sun twice. The next transit will occur on June 8, 2004. It is indeed remarkable that a boy in his teens could make a calculation of greater exactitude than the great Kepler. It also is remarkable that he would risk missing such an event instead of missing church one Sunday.See our biography of Johannes Kepler, the first astronomer to predict transits of Venus.If you missed the 2004 transit, don’t miss this one–it will be the last in your lifetime.   Live Science tells how to observe it safely (do NOT look at the sun directly).  Share the experience with children if you can; it will be a nice memory and a teachable moment about the clockwork regularity of the heavens, and how our Privileged Planet gives us an ideal platform for making scientific discoveries.Exercise: Watch The Privileged Planet after the transit, and discuss what factors apply to making the event observable from Earth.  Discuss the discoveries made using transits of Venus (see Astrobio.net for ideas), and then discuss what today’s scientists hope to learn by today’s transit (see Space.com and JPL). (Visited 22 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more